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By Young Chun Kim

This ebook permits Western students and educators to acknowledge the jobs and contributions of shadow education/hakwon schooling in a world context. The booklet permits readers to redefine the conventional and constrained figuring out of the heritage good fortune in the back of Korean education and to extend their views on Korean hakwon schooling, in addition to shadow schooling in different countries with academic strength, reminiscent of Japan, China, Singapore, and Taiwan. Kim exhorts readers and researchers to check shadow schooling as an rising study inquiry within the context of postcolonial and around the world curriculum studies.

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Policies for Reduction of Private Tutoring of Lee Myung-Bak Administration. Kim, Y. C. (2010b). Transnational curriculum studies: Reconceptualization discourse in South Korea. Curriculum Inquiry, 40(4), 531–554. -H. (2010). Private tutoring and the demand for education in South Korea. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 58(2), 259–296.  W. (2004). A qualitative study on adolescents’ complaints in proprietary academies and schools: Instruction and treatment. Korean Educational Review, 10(1), 1–27.

Similarly, Jonghan Kim’s (2003b) survey of 379 Seoul students attending hakwons to prepare for college entrance found that most of these students rated their hakwon teachers higher than their school teachers in every area, including their classroom management and their ability to motivate and provide feedback to students. In short, Korean parents and students alike consistently recognize the benefits of hakwon schooling (J. Lee et al.  195). Even the government-funded KEDI (Korean Educational Development Institute), the major role of which is to support national public-education enterprises, found in its study “Learning environment and culture analysis of high school students” (Choi 2009) that high school students evaluated hakwons as providing higher-quality education than public schools.

Hakwon education has prospered from this educational fervor. Students focused wholly on textbooks and received individual tutoring. There were “elite” schools even in the Japanese colonial period, and the competition to enter them was fierce. Some school teachers helped students prepare for the entrance exam, and prospective students for elite schools remained after school to receive private tutoring. This type of private tutoring was quite common at that time. m. Some students who failed to be admitted into elite schools (called retakers) retook the entrance exam the following year.

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