By Deborah Mitchell, C. A. E. Luschnig
C.A.E. Luschnig's An creation to old Greek: A Literary method prepares scholars to learn Greek in lower than a yr by way of offering easy conventional grammar with out frills and through introducing genuine Greek written via historic Greeks, from the 1st day of research. the second one variation keeps the entire good points of the 1st yet is extra streamlined, more uncomplicated at the eyes, extra gender-inclusive, and altogether extra twenty first century. it really is supported through an internet site for academics and newcomers at http://worldwidegreek.com/.
Read or Download An Introduction to Ancient Greek: A Literary Approach PDF
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Hugely, hugely, hugely recommended.
this could be the top booklet i've got noticeable for the layman or starting linguist on language acquisition. the writer has a valid case to make during this book--for the institution of a world language--but this is often the point of interest of a truly small part of this e-book. knowing his aim is sooner or later, the majority of Bodmer's ebook makes a speciality of the similarities and variations among Teutonic and Romance languages that ease the educational of a number of languages. sooner than introducing thematically prepared poly-lingual wordlists, Bodmer information the sound shifts and morphological alterations within the languages in super transparent language.
Here is the evaluate that led me to this text:
The Loom of Language: An method of the Mastery of Many Languages by means of Frederick Bodmer has regularly been my favourite ebook approximately studying languages. I first came across it on F. X. Micheloud’s studying Languages web site approximately nine or 10 years in the past while i used to be nonetheless an undergrad and lots more and plenty extra attracted to studying languages alone instead of taking dull sessions at collage. i needed to benefit precious vocabulary and concentration extra on realizing and talking the language whereas my periods sought after me to investigate Zola or Sand with very constrained wisdom of French. Or my periods have been cancelled simply because no longer sufficient scholars signed up for German or simply because there have been no academics to be had for Italian. My language books (all 500 of them) and later the net grew to become the most assets I utilized in learning, yet I regularly went again to The Loom of Language since it defined every thing so well.
It is the single e-book that really teaches languages rather than easily educating find out how to research languages. There are numerous books and assets to be had for that already. i used to be particularly trying to find anything that in comparison eu languages and gave me the principles and phrases had to study the languages – to not find out about the languages. initially written within the 1940′s, it truly is evidently superseded in a few elements – the quote “1,800 million humans in this globe converse nearly 1,500 varied languages” is so very unsuitable this day – yet it’s nonetheless the easiest publication for multilingual novices to get an summary of Latin and Germanic grammar and vocabulary.
The first a part of the booklet begins with the background of human language and alphabets and leads into morphology and syntax of a number of languages, and ends with the type of languages during the global. the second one half makes a speciality of studying vocabulary (from the given lists) benefiting from similarities between languages and sound shifts that reason predictable adjustments from one language to a different. What I consistently came upon most vital, notwithstanding, used to be the statement so that you can examine definite phrases first, similar to own pronouns, auxiliary verbs, demonstratives, prepositions, conjunctions, and so forth. (essentially functionality phrases) simply because they're the most typical and least recognizable after they swap cases.
Many nouns, adjectives and verbs may still come after the functionality phrases simply because they're prone to be well-known due to universal affixes between related languages and “international” phrases resembling mobilephone or taxi, and in addition simply because those concrete phrases are hugely depending on the location. Bodmer’s instance of a Dane who learns the observe rabbit in a single of his first English classes yet who may well by no means discuss rodents of any style for 10 years rather illustrates the necessity to study the functionality and summary phrases first, or not less than to concentration instantly at the phrases that you'll want counting on why you're studying the language.
Bodmer additionally encourages freshmen to “get a bird’s-eye view of the grammatical peculiarities of a language ahead of attempting to memorize anything” and not to waste time on memorizing case endings of nouns or adjectives until eventually a analyzing wisdom of the language is accomplished. so much textbooks don’t accept as true with this as they introduce circumstances and declensions early on in order that scholars are meant to memorize the endings prior to they even study many nouns or adjectives. Bodmer’s technique relies on attractiveness and enter of important vocabulary first, and later in depth studying and writing to excellent the grammar, which appears to be like the other of convinced books.
He additionally states “If you examine in basic terms ten new phrases of the crowd including debris, pronouns, and pointer phrases on a daily basis for a fortnight, you have at your disposal not less than 25 consistent with cent of the whole variety of phrases you employ if you happen to write a letter. in case you have performed this, you will need to have a small vocabulary of crucial nouns, adjectives, and verbs prepared to be used. ” All of this crucial vocabulary he's touching on is integrated behind the booklet in different lists that examine English, French, Spanish, Portuguese & Italian and English, Swedish, Danish, Dutch & German. Sound frequent? those “basic vocabularies” have been the muse for growing my very own multilingual lists and bring about the Romance and Germanic Vocabulary & Verbs pages that i'm nonetheless operating on.
The 3rd a part of the e-book supplies details on different languages in additional element, together with non-Indo-European and developed languages and leads right into a dialogue on language making plans and a “true Interlingua” that may be “a passport to a much broader foreign tradition. ” The final paragraph remains to be suitable at the present time, even though written in the course of WWII.
“Of itself, no such switch can convey the age-long calamity of conflict to an finish; and it's a harmful errors to conceive that it may accomplish that. we won't wish to arrive a treatment for the language stumbling blocks to foreign co-operation on a democratic footing, whereas predatory finance capital, intrigues or armament brands, and the vested curiosity of a rentier classification within the distress of colonial peoples proceed to stifle the impulse to a world-wide company for the typical wealth of mankind. No language reform can abolish warfare, whereas social enterprises way more robust than mere linguistic misunderstandings provide clean celebration for it. What clever language making plans can do is to forge a brand new software for human collaboration on a planetary scale, whilst social associations propitious to overseas strife now not thwart the optimistic job of making plans wellbeing and fitness, relaxation and many for all. ”
Language, tradition and politics regularly were hooked up and doubtless continuously can be. the govt. of Belgium simply collapsed (again! ) due to tensions among French and Flemish audio system and the French-English tensions in Quebec has an extended heritage in addition. Hispanics within the US are discriminated opposed to simply because they don't communicate English good sufficient or on no account even supposing the united states has no professional language. Montenegro calls its language Montenegrin notwithstanding it really is truly one other dialect of the now defunct Serbo-Croatian language that still contains Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian as the Balkan states should have their very own “standardized” language with a purpose to be eligible for european membership.
Interestingly, WWII and the Balkan wars within the 90′s have been what inspired me to begin studying languages within the first position. i needed to learn the unique records and journals and newspapers and check out to appreciate why wars take place and the place the hatred for different people comes from. There are nonetheless numerous armed conflicts occurring world wide, and the racist propaganda opposed to immigrants in different international locations, together with either my domestic and followed nations, is what retains me studying languages – in order that at some point i will aid these immigrants, and particularly refugees, comply with their new lives and struggle opposed to the discrimination. probably i'm a bleeding-heart liberal in terms of the underprivileged (especially the bad who tend to be immigrants) yet rampant inequality between teams of individuals is heart-breaking to me; or even although it sounds trite and clichéd, I nonetheless think that studying overseas languages performs a wide half in making the realm a greater position.
This article is designed to revise and consolidate grammar issues on the point of CAE and skillability assessments, and this version has been revised to incorporate skillability fabric within the layout of the 2002 examination. it's to be had without or with key.
Adults who are looking to research a overseas language are frequently discouraged simply because they think they can not collect a language as simply as teenagers. after they start to examine a language, adults can be additional discouraged after they locate the equipment used to coach little ones don’t appear to paintings for them. what's an grownup language learner to do?
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Extra info for An Introduction to Ancient Greek: A Literary Approach
1. ἡ μὲν ὁδὸς ἄγει εἰς τὸν θάνατον, ἡ δὲ εἰς τὸν βίον. [ἡ μὲν . . ἡ δὲ . , the one . . the other . ] 2. ὁ ἄνθρωπος τὸ παιδίον λύεται τῷ δώρῳ. 3. ὁ μὲν θεὸς ἄρχει τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, ὁ δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἄρχεται ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ. [ὑπό + gen. by] 4. ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἄγει τὸν φίλον εἰς δίκην παρὰ νόμον. 5. εἰς λόγους ἔρχομαι τῷ ξένῳ. [εἰς λόγους ἔρχεσθαι + dat. enter into speech with] 6. ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐθέλει φίλος γίγνεσθαι. 7. ἡ ψυχὴ κρίνεται ἐν οὐρανῷ. 8. ἡ γὰρ ἀρετὴ γίγνεται ἡ τοῦ βίου ἀρχὴ τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ. 9. ] 10. πιστεύεις τῷ θεῷ; 11.
The man brings gifts to his [= the] guests. 2. The gods bring both life and death to people. 3. Does man rule [over] the god? 4. Do you trust the opinions of men? 5. Do we judge our friends by [= by means of] the gifts? 6. Both men and gods wish to stop the war and to have peace. 7. Does the road lead to the island? 8. I am willing to wait, but I wish to leave. 9. Is justice destroyed by gifts? 10. Do the gifts of human beings persuade the god? 39 40 Lesson I 4. b. Make up some Greek sentences using the following words.
17. 18. 19. 20. ὁ μὲν ἄνθρωπος λέγει, ὁ δὲ θεὸς πράττει. τὸν πόνον λείπομεν. οἱ ἐν ταῖς νήσοις ἄνθρωποι ἡμῶν ἄρχουσιν. ] παρὰ τοῖς φίλοις βουλόμεθα μένειν. παρὰ τῇ ὁδῷ τὸν φίλον λείπετε; 3. b. Translate. Change appropriate nouns and verbs to the opposite number. ) 1. ἡ μὲν ὁδὸς ἄγει εἰς τὸν θάνατον, ἡ δὲ εἰς τὸν βίον. [ἡ μὲν . . ἡ δὲ . , the one . . the other . ] 2. ὁ ἄνθρωπος τὸ παιδίον λύεται τῷ δώρῳ. 3. ὁ μὲν θεὸς ἄρχει τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, ὁ δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἄρχεται ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ. [ὑπό + gen. by] 4. ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἄγει τὸν φίλον εἰς δίκην παρὰ νόμον.