By Professor Dr. Costas Tsatsoulis, Dr. Ronald Kwok (auth.)
This ebook experiences fresh advances within the use of SAR imagery for operational purposes and for assisting technological know-how investigations of the polar oceans. the real parameters that are extracted from spaceborne SAR imagery are mentioned. Algorithms utilized in such analyses are defined and information structures utilized in generating the ocean ice items are provided.
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Extra resources for Analysis of SAR Data of the Polar Oceans: Recent Advances
1995; and others) have shown that a distinct pattern exists for the seasonal evolution of the microwave scattering coefficient (}"o over various sea ice types. Although these patterns are undoubtedly frequency- and polarization-dependent it would appear that the C-VV manifestation for snow-covered 3 Role of SAR in Surface Energy Flux Measurements Over Sea Ice 43 -5 ,-------------__________________________- , ulliyear :::- -10 VJ ------ - - - - - - - '"- - - - 0::: " "- ~ 'b -IS " irst- Year [\ f I \ I \ I \ \ \ - \.
For the latter condition, note the solidly red third frame from the top in Fig. 15a, where the SAR image is basically featureless, and the frame centered at 78°N, where there is a large area of substrate visible, and where the SAR image is comparatively bright and more winter-like than surrounding images. For this data take, the solid red frame was not included in the final selection, but the frame near 78°N was included, since it was felt that the measured floes were accurately segmented. All the frames from 72 oN and southward were eliminated from further analysis.
Snow conditions typical of the winter season can change quickly during a warming event. If ambi- 3 Role of SAR in Surface Energy Flux Measurements Over Sea Ice 39 ent conditions return to winter norms these changes can be retained within the snow crystal structure retaining a thermal history (Barber et al. 1992). During melt onset free water is continuously present within the snow pack and the ice surface becomes damp at the snow-ice interface. Polycrystalline aggregates form locally at the snow base and superimposed ice layers sometimes form on first-year ice (Holt and Digby 1985).