By Tiffany K. Wayne Ph.D.
A finished exam of yankee ladies scientists around the sciences in the course of the twentieth century, offering a wealthy old context for knowing their achievements and how they replaced the perform of science.
500 alphabetically equipped entries on American ladies scientists within the twentieth century, together with genetics pioneers Barbara McClintock and Rosalind Franklin, Scotchgard inventor Patsy Sherman, and developer of the note processor Evelyn Berezin.
50 short essays on ladies in particular clinical disciplines, exploring how each one particular box handled gender issues
10 essays on sociocultural matters, together with gender in well known technology, ladies in clinical schooling, balancing occupation and family)
Chronologies of vital old advancements, expert awards, and medical "firsts"
Extensive bibliography of reference and different works stated within the entries in addition to up to date bibliography of scholarly books, articles, and internet sites regarding particular matters in women's technology schooling and employment
Indexes equipped by way of topic, key be aware, and medical discipline
Read or Download American Women of Science since 1900 2 volumes PDF
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Additional resources for American Women of Science since 1900 2 volumes
Table H-7. ” Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT). pdf. 7 8 American Women of Science since 1900 National Science Foundation. “Table H-25. ” Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 2006. pdf.
Feminists must also be aware, however, of their own political purposes in these debates. While feminists have been accused of bringing politics into science, feminist scientists and scholars point out that sexism is not an objective scientiﬁc method. Science is rarely value-neutral (for example, scientiﬁc research agendas are often set by ﬁnancial, political, or military goals), and is never objective if gender or racial bias informs the very role of the scientist and the questions asked. As an alternative, more subjective, epistemology, feminism acknowledges that all individual scientists bring background assumptions, biases, and speciﬁc experiences, goals, and priorities to their work, even unconsciously.
Early women scientists and reformers pointed out women’s limited access to education, institutional support, and jobs, and sought to remedy the situation. Once women entered into the scientiﬁc professions, feminist scientists began to question the sexism inherent in the research itself. What they discovered is that science itself has been used to keep women out, to limit their opportunities, and to silence their voices. The greater representation of women in the sciences is a worthy goal, feminists argue, not only as a political commitment to equality, but because women change the very questions asked by science and therefore have an impact on the creation of scientiﬁc knowledge.