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Research in this area has been neglected. We should also note that flow restrictions, such as heat exchangers, placed downstream of wide-angle diffusers increase the pressure recovery available from diffusers. The adverse pressure gradients of the potential flow are not solely responsible for flow separation. Secondary flow losses. Pressure gradients normal to the direction of the throughflow are found whenever the flow is curved. Fluid elements retarded by friction are then not in equilibrium with the pressure gradients produced by the less retarded flow and are, consequently, moved along the path of this gradient.
An operating point of the outer spool is partly determined by the fact that (ATT/TT, I)OUx is practically constant K over the operating range of interest when the engine nozzle area is not varied. A value for (Tc, o/Tc,l)iN 44 AIRCRAFT PROPULSION SYSTEMS is selected from the inner-spool compressor map, similar to Fig. 23) The value of K is found at the design point, where the other variables are known. 24) The variation of (ATc/Tc,I)OU T with this flow and corrected speed are calculated from the data of Fig.
Designs with two separate shafts, as shown in Fig. 22, are thus recommended. The reduced size of the inner spool offers the additional benefit of a reduction in weight. Although the pressure ratio of each compressor is smaller than that used in Fig. 12a, the overall pressure ratio and efficiency can be increased markedly. 23 presents typical maps S Fig. 22 Two-shaft jet engine. ~ 100 -I 90 ~- 80 ~E ~o 8 6o i i . line . 70i Equivalent speed, so N~ ~ I 11o percent design ' 70 80 90 100 40 i i 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Equivalent weight flow at outer-compressor inlet, percent design a) Outer-compressor performance map.