By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs offers operators with the right kind workflow structures and engineering suggestions for designing, making plans and imposing water injection structures that might enhance restoration elements. while utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is likely one of the low-budget tools for making sure greatest creation charges. This booklet presents either theoretical research and sensible circumstances for designing and comparing water injection structures and knowing key creation variables fascinated about making unique predictions for oil and water generating charges, water injection premiums, and restoration efficiency.
This ebook in actual fact explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear stream theories. those subject matters are then utilized to layout and implementation. software situations of 4 oilfields are integrated to assist improve innovations whereas illustrating the correct workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The ebook can be utilized as a reference for box technical body of workers, or as technical aid for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulation theories
- Provides specific examinations of points reminiscent of rigidity sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear move theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complex waterflooding systems
- Includes actual case reports from 4 oilfields
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Extra info for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice
The output begins to decline at the stage of intermediate water-cut. 9417 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Production duration (years) FIGURE 1-21 The decline curve of old wells brought into production before 1999 in the Xinghe block. Chapter | 1 Features of Ultralow-Permeability Reservoirs in the Ordos Basin 35 water-cut, when the output begins to decline, usually at a high rate. In the Wangyao block, the output began to decline when the water-cut reached 20%. 9%. In the Hua-152 block, the output began to decline when the water-cut reached 34%.
Ping 30À391 and Ping 30À392, were drilled, which formed a small-spaced test well group, with a spacing of 50B100 m. 2 t/d, with a comprehensive water-cut of 8%. The Influence of Injection-Production Parameters To solve the problems of the injected water channeling along the fractures, the water-cut rising rapidly or even explosively in the producers in the main directions, and the producers on the sides being low pressure, low production, and low recovery for a long time, an experiment of enhanced injection well rows was carried out in recent years that has improved the development efficiency to a certain degree in the fracture-developed areas.
Most layers show a weak or medium-to-weak water sensitivity (Chang-8 in mid-Baima), no water sensitivity (Chang-6 in block 2 of Dalugou) or weak water sensitivity (Chang-6 in Wuliwan and Chang-4 1 5 in Baiyushan) and therefore are all fit for advanced injection to achieve a better development effect. 6 Fluid Types and Features in Pores Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. © 2013 Petroleum Industry Press. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2 The Influence of Advanced Injection on TPG 77 78 78 78 79 82 85 85 86 86 87 88 90 90 91 92 92 92 93 96 96 99 102 102 105 109 110 110 111 111 Chapter | 2 Nonlinear Percolation Theory for UPR 53 Flow patterns of fluids in an ultralow-permeability reservoir are dominated by four factors: first, the composition and physicochemical properties of the fluids; second, the pore structures and physicochemical properties of the porous media; third, the flow dynamics (mainly the environments and conditions of the flow and the interaction between the fluids and between the fluids and the porous media); and fourth, the influence of the effective stress.